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TAJIKISTAN

Geography

 Tajikistan is a mountain country. Mountains which occupy approximately 93% of territory belong to systems of Pamir, Tien Shan and Hissar Alai. In central Tajikistan Turkestan, Zeravshan, Hissar and western part of Alai ridges have mostly latitudinal and heights of 4000-5000 m. Pamir system with the highest peaks of Somoni (7495m) and Lenin (7134) are situated in the eastern part of Tajikistan. Tajikistan has more than thousands of glaciers. The greatest one is valley glacier Fedchenko which length is approximately 70km.




Economics

 Basis of energy in Tajikistan makes hydroelectric power stations which are mainly situated on rivers Vakhsh, Pyanj and Syrdarya. The biggest hydroelectric power stations are Nurek, Rogun, Sangtuda, Baypazin (on Vakhsh ) and Kayrakkum (on Syrdarya).  Thermal Power Plants (TPP) of country are working mainly on brown coal. The biggest TPP`s are situated in Dushanbe and Yavan. Tajikistan is extracting oil and natural gas in small amounts.




Religion

 The vast majority of Tajik population (95-99%) is Muslim Sunnis of the Hanafi school of thought (which has official status from April 2, 2009). At present time, there are about 3000 mosques 259 of which are the Jameh mosques. There are 19 officially registered madrasah`s (Islamic religious and educational institutions). There is a religious minority of Ismaili in the mountain Badakhshan. It counts its history from X-XI centuries. In 2009, Ismaili Centre was opened in the capital of country.
Other religious minorities. Also in the country are registered Bahai community, Zoroaster and Jewish communities. Most of the representatives of non-Muslim communities live in Dushanbe.




Holidays

Nowadays in Tajikistan are celebrating 64 holidays, the most common and observances of which are:
Eid and Month of Ramadan (dates of change)
Kurban Eid (dates of change)
Independence Day (September 9)
Navrooz (March 21-22). In these days people have holiday from 2 days per week.

 

In addition to the above mentioned holidays, in Tajikistan people solemnly celebrate:
Knowledge Day (September 1)
Victory Day (May 9)
National (Tajik) Language Day
Teachers Day
Labor Day (May 1)
National Army Day (February 23)
The remained holidays are celebrating as a professional or not in all regions of republic. On professional holidays, workers of this profession have a day off, but others are celebrating it in their own way.




Culture, Art and Architecture

Monuments of the ancient Central Asian culture of settled east Iranian population and nomadic tribes are well preserve on the territory of Tajikistan. Development of art of Tajikistan has valued by the location of trade routes between East and West, by the cultural and economic relationships with Iran, India, Eastern Turkestan, China, the Mediterranean countries, and tribes and peoples of the Eurasian steppes.




Lakes
 

 Karakul Lake. Translated from Uzbek literary language, it means “black lake” and located in the Murgab region of Tajikistan near the village Karakul at altitude of 3900m above the sea level. It is located 100m above famous alpine Lake Titicaca in the Andes. Bitter-salty water of Karakul remains cold for most of the year. In calm weather, lake water is completely clear, but the wind can raise the waves and the color of the water becomes with black hue which gave the name to lake. Shores of the lake surrounded by mountains from three sides and only from eastern side it goes to small picturesque valley.


Sarez Lake.It emerged in 1911 as a result of a unique geological phenomenon: after a powerful earthquake Murgab River was blocked by a stone which capacity is 3 cubic meters and its weight is 6 billion tons and it led to the formation of the dam. During the next ten years the water level in the lake has stabilized. The length of lake is 70km and the depth exceeds 500m. Sky-blue water surrounded by a ring of steep red and brownish-red cliffs and untouched wild nature makes trip to this region unforgettable.



Iskandarkul Lake.It is the biggest lake of Pamir Alai and themost beautiful in Tajikistan. Local residents dubbed it “an emerald embedded in the gray mountains”. Iskandarkul Lake is situated in the cradle of adorable Fan Mountains. The lake has acquired with numerous stories and legends, which goes around among the Pamir people. People say, that Alexander of Macedon during the military campaign to Central Asia was captured by the beauty of this wonder of nature.  The river Iskandardarya flows from lake, which forms an unusually beautiful and majestic waterfall known as a “the Fans Niagara”.

Nurek Hydro Electric Station.The tallest one in the world (the height of station is 300m, surface area of the reservoir is 98 square meters, volume is 10.5 cubic kilometers, length is 70km) from which opens magnificent view of surrounding mountain landscape.